Ailla Logo Ailla Header


How to Use
   - Conditions
   - Disclaimers
   - License
   - Citations
AILLA papers


AILLA Citation Guidelines

Online resources must be cited just like any other published resource, whenever you quote from them or use them as the basis of your work. AILLA's citation guidelines were designed in collaboration with other DELAMAN members.

Each AILLA collection and resource includes a bibliographic citation. Eventually, each collection and resource will also have an associated Digital Object Identifier (DOI) that should be included in the citation

Bibliographic Examples

Cite a whole collection
Sherzer, Joel. "Kuna Collection." The Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America: Media: audio, text, image. Access: 0% restricted.

Cite a single resource
Sherzer, Joel (Researcher) and Olowiktinappi (Speaker, Translator). (1970). "Report of a curing specialist." Kuna Collection. The Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America: Media: audio, text. Access: public. Resource ID: CUK012R004.

Cite a single file
Sherzer, Joel (Researcher) and Olowiktinappi (Speaker, Translator). (1970a). "Report of a curing specialist." Kuna Collection. The Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America: Type: primary text. Media: audio. Access: public. Resource ID: CUK012R004, File ID: CUK012R004I001.mp3. Accessed 9 Oct. 2015

Sherzer, Joel (Researcher) and Olowiktinappi (Speaker, Translator). (1970b). "Report of a curing specialist." Kuna Collection. The Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America: Type: transcription & translation. Media: text. Access: public. Resource ID: CUK012R004, File ID: CUK012R004I001.pdf. Accessed 9 Oct. 2015.

Examples of In-Text Citations

Of an audio file
Text that you need to cite (Sherzer and Olowinktinappi 1970a, time 12:53).

Of a text file
More text that you need to cite (Sherzer and Olowiktinappi 1970b, p. 3, line 55).

Explanation of the format

First we explain the different levels of organization that may be referenced; then we explain the components that make up a citation.

Levels of organization

Collection: A collection may include many resources, in some cases comprising hundreds of individual files. Typically, these materials were collected by a single researcher or team working on a project unified in terms of area or languages of interest. Many of the collections housed in AILLA are the result of a full career of research. Joel Sherzer’s Kuna Collection is a good example of this type. Others are the result of a specific research project, such as Colette Grinevald's Bolivian Languages Survey.

If your work is based on many resources from the same collection, please cite the collection as a whole (in addition to individual resources and files). The recommended form is given on the collection overview page, which is reached via the Browse By Collection search option.

Resource (bundle, session bundle): An AILLA resource is a set of files that are related in terms of their intellectual content. The typical example is an audio or video recording with a text file containing a transcription and translation. A resource might also include photographs, alternate transcriptions, translations in different languages, and commentaries. Some resources consist of many recorded files, either because simultaneous recordings were made in different media (audio and video) or because the performance or event spanned many tapes or discs. Each resource includes a recommended citation.

File: An AILLA resource may contain many media files, each of which can be cited separately. For example, if you only refer to the transcription of a recording, you may wish to cite only that individual file. It is not possible to generate citations for individual files automatically.

Components of a citation

  1. Sherzer, Joel (Researcher) and Olowiktinappi (Speaker, Translator).
  2. (1970b).
  3. "Report of a curing specialist."
  4. Kuna Collection.
  5. Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America:
  6. Type: transcription & translation.
  7. Media: text.
  8. Access: public.
  9. Resource ID: CUK012R004.
  10. File ID: CUK012R004I001.pdf.
  11. Accessed 9 Oct. 2015
  1. Contributors' names and roles
    1. Each contributor's role in the creation of this particular resource or file is given in parentheses after the name. In order to avoid redundancy, we do not include the roles of Depositor or Collector in the citation since in most cases, the Research, Collector and Depositor are all the same person.
    2. We put the Researcher's name first because researchers are most likely to use these citations in their publications and CVs, and it is best if all of their works appear together when the list is sorted alphabetically.
    3. Whether the native speaker consultant is cited as a Performer, Speaker, Consultant, or another role depends on the nature of the work and the preferences of the depositor.
  2. Date of creation
    1. The date of creation for a resource is the date on which the primary component -- usually a recording -- was made. Depositors do not typically record the date on which secondary data, such as transcriptions, are made, so we use the recording date for the whole resource bundle.
    2. The date of creation used in AILLA appears in YYYY-MM-DD format. We only give the year in citations for simplicity
    3. Alphabetical indices should be included when citing multiple files from the same resource.
  3. Resource Title
    1. Titles are assigned to resources, so individual files will necessarily have the same title.
    2. AILLA stores titles in three languages for each resource: English, Spanish, and the indigenous language (only if one is provided to us by the depositor. When using the Spanish interface, you will see Spanish titles. When using the English interface, you will see English titles. There is no way to generate citations with indigenous titles automatically. If you want them, you will have to go to the individual resource metadata pages and copy them yourself.
  4. Collection
    The collection title is included because all files belong to a resource and all resources belong to a collection.
  5. Archive Name
    The full name and address of the archive are given to make it easier for others to find the work that you cite.
  6. Type
    1. AILLA coarsely categorizes the components of a resource as an aid to the user. You can find this term in the list of individual files at the bottom of the metadata page for a resource.
    2. 'Primary text' is the term used for the component of central interest, usually a recording, but sometimes an article or a chapter from a book.
  7. Media
    1. A list of the types of media found in the resource or collection, or the type of the file being cited, is provided so that readers of your citation can decide if they want to pursue the reference.
    2. Media types at AILLA are audio, video, text, and image. Note that 'text' is a very broad category that may include PDF or XML as well as plain text formats.
  8. Access
    1. Some of the materials in AILLA are restricted from public access. The citation should reflect the access level (public or restricted) of the resource.
    2. The percentage of restricted is given only for the collection-level citation.
    3. The citation form does not give details about the method by which access is restricted. Readers will have to go to the archive and log in to pursue the reference.
  9. Resource ID
    Every resource in AILLA is assigned a unique identifier. Readers can go directly to the resource of interest using the identifier.
  10. File ID Every file in AILLA is assigned a unique identifier. Readers can easily find the file being cited with this ID.
  11. Date Accessed When citing online sources, it is common practice to include the date the source was accessed and/or downloaded.

To Cite This Page:
Archive of the Indigenous Languages of Latin America. (2002). AILLA Citation Guidelines. Retrieved from

Comments and suggestions about ways in which these guidelines and the citation format could be improved are always welcome; please write to us.

AILLA is a joint effort of the LLILAS Benson Latin American Studies and Collections, the Department of Linguistics, and the Digital Library Services Division of the University Libraries at the University of Texas at Austin.
AILLA is also grateful for support from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Science Foundation.
Legal Disclaimers | Graphics sources